Flanders poppy

Created: 15/03/2002

Last updated:


Pistol & rifle cartridges

Headstamps (small calibre)

Rifle clips

Howitzer & canon cartridge cases

Headstamps (large calibre)

Fuze, primer & shell markings


Large calibre markings on cartridge cases

Dear Visitor,

Should you happen to have or know about a cartridge case which is dated before 1919 and have no longer use for it (dislike brass polishing !) or is just gathering dust in some forgotten corner, we would very much like to hear from you. A cartridge case which has been transformed into a vase, lamp or any other shape (socalled "trench art") is also more than welcome. The museum's collection can always use expansion.

Much appreciated.

These lists were put together once we had established the origin of most of the cartridge cases we collected over the years, and we are very much aware that they are far from complete. The other information which will help you to determine its origin are the cartridge case measurements (base, bottom, top and sometimes neck diameter and full length).

Please drop us a line if you happen to have additional information on the subject.


Collecting socalled 'live ammunition' is in most countries forbidden. You need to have a special permit to do so (check with your local police-station). Illegal possession of ammunition is considered to be a criminal act. You might end up with a heavy fine, and the chance of going to jail (not to mention the confiscation of your whole collection). Also take in consideration that in case of a fire your insurance-company might simply refuse to pay out. It is not worth the risk. Be warned !


Howitzer & canon cartridge cases

A summary of some of the cartridge cases currently in the collection.

37 x 94R3,7 cm Hotchkiss C/97USA, France, England, Germany, Russia
37 x 120RUS Navy 1 Pdr.USA
37 x 137RUS Navy 1 Pdr.USA
40 x 100R40 mm Mle 1879 HotchkissFrance
47 x 131R4,7 cm HotchkissUSA, England, Russia, Japan
53 x 176R5,3 cm GrusonGermany
57 x 224R5,7 cm NordenfeltBelgium, France, Germany
57 x 305R6 Pdr.England
75 x 100R7,5 cm FeldkanoneGermany
75 x 125R7,5 cm Gebirgskanone M.15 (Skoda)Austo-Hungary, Germany
75 x 278R75 mm Feldkanone 07 K/30Germany
75 x 350R75 mm Mle 1897France
76 x 294R13 PdrEngland
76.2 x 385R7,62 cm Infanterie/besp. FLAK geschützRussia, Germany
77 x 230R7,7 cm Feldkanone 96 and Feldkanone 16Germany
77 x 282R8 cm M.5Austria
77 x 586R8 cm FlaK L/45KGermany
84 x 294R18 Pdr.England
88 x 292R25 Pdr.England
88 x 390R8,8 cm S.K. L/30 and 8,8 cm S.K. L/35 (S.K. --> Schnellladekanone = Quick Firing Gun / Naval use)Germany
88 x 570R8,8 cm S.K. L/40, L/45 and L/50Germany
100 x 132R10 cm M.14Austria
105 x 390R10.5 cm L Mle 1913France
110 x 92R10.5 cm L.F.H. 98/09Germany
110 x 505R10.5 cm Kanone 04Germany
110 x 883R4 inch/50calUSA
130 x 705R13 cm Kanone L/35 M.1908Germany
117 x 86R4.5 Inch HowitzerEngland
155 x 113R15 cm HaubitzeGermany
155 x 250R15.5 cm Mle 1915 SFrance
155 x 725R15 cm Kanone 16Germany
175 x 1050R17 cm SK/L40 Naval gunGermany
215 x 231R21 cm MörserGermany



French 3,7 cm Hotchkiss
German 3,7 cm Hotchkiss
37mm - Germany

3,7 cm Hotchkiss

Marked: C/97.98 and KARLSRUHE, VI and 1903

Crowned M = Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy) arsenal's acceptance stamp
37mm - France

3,7 cm Hotchkiss

Marked: 37-85 and PD.Ps,
116 and 2.16 (1916)

PD.Ps = Parc d'Artillerie de Paris
37mm - Germany

3,7 cm Hotchkiss

Marked: PATRONENFABRIK and KARLSRUHE, 1917 and 119A
5,7cm Nordenfelt - Belgium5,7 cm Nordenfelt

Marked: EP, 1 (January, or LOT number 1) and 12 (1912)

EP = Ecole de Pyrotechnie, Antwerp (Belgium)
6 Pdr - England6 Pdr.

Marked: RL and CF,

RL = Royal Laboratories, Woolwich Arsenal
CF = Charge loaded with cordite / Full charge

E57 = inspection mark
75mm - Germany

7,5 cm Feldkanone


AWS = Artillerie Werkstatt Spandau

10 & 19 = inspection marks
7,5 cm Gebirgskanone M.15 - Austro-Hungary

7,5 cm Gebirgskanone M.15 (Skoda)

Marked: BERNDORF and 1917, 7,5cm M15 and 284

BERNDORF = Berndorf, Austria (see also BMF) and
284 = inspection mark

Cartridge case is battlefield relic hence the discoloring
7,5 cm Feldkanone M15 - Germany

7,5 cm Feldkanone M15

Marked: PATR and 1918, FN and HL27

FN = Friedrich Niemeyer,
HL = Haniel Luege Düsseldorf (brass factory) and
27 = inspection mark
13 Pdr - England13 Pdr.

Marked: II and 1918,LOT83 and V.S.M.

VSM = Vickers, Sons and Maxim
77mm - Germany

7,7 cm Feldkanone 96 and Feldkanone 16

Marked: HL and HL8,
MRZ and 1908

HL = Haniel Luege Düsseldorf (brass factory) and
27 = inspection mark
77mm - Germany

7,7 cm Feldkanone 96 and Feldkanone 16


St = Strengthened case (Stark),
167 = LOT number and
Crowned Ke = inspection marks
77mm - Germany

7,7 cm Feldkanone 96 and Feldkanone 16

Marked: FN and HL27,
AUG and 1917

St = Strengthened case (Stark),
138 = LOT number,
HL = Haniel Luege Düsseldorf (brass factory),
27 = inspection mark and
FN = Friedrich Niemeyer
4.5 Inch Howitzer - England

4.5 inch Howitzer

Marked: 4-5 IN HOWr and 1915,
CF and LOT162

CF = Charge loaded with cordite / Full charge
N monogram = New York Air Brake Co. (USA)
C.S. & R in small square = inspection marks
Case has been used numerous times judging by the amount of different inspection marks (cartridge case is battlefield relic hence the discoloration)

4.5 Inch Howitzer - England

4.5 inch Howitzer

Marked: 4-5 IN HOWr and 1917,
CF and LOT57

CF = Charge loaded with cordite / Full charge
C.S. & FG & U in circle = inspection marks

The country name between [....] means the origin of the cartridge case itself. The other marks will indicate where the case was assembled (sized, primer inserted, powder charge filled and in most cases a shell added).





67percentage indication for brass quality Germany
A (encircled)Case has been fired once England
A • (encircled)punch mark added for subsequent firing England
ABSAtelier de Construction de Bourges France
AEAllen Everitt & Sons Ltd., Kingston Metal Works England
AIArtillerie-Inrichtingen NV The Netherlands
ALCOAmerican Locomotive Company England [USA]
AMSAtelier de Chargement de Moulins France
APXAtelier de Constructions de Puteaux France
ARSAtelier de Constructions de Rennes France
ASCoA.S. Campbell Company Inc. USA
ATEAtelier de Constructions de Toulouse France
ATSAtelier de Constructions de Tarbes France
AWDrArtillerie Werkstatt Dresden Germany
AWSArtillerie Werkstatt Spandau Germany
AWS10Inspection mark for Patronenfabrik Karlsruhe1897 to 1898Germany
AZFArtillerie Zeugs Fabrik, Vienna Austria
BMFBerndorf Metalware Fabrik Germany [Austro-Hungary]
BSCBethlehem Steel Corporation England [USA]
CCastelsarrasin75mm from 1907 onwardsFrance
C.C. & F.Canada Car & Foundry Co., Montreal, Quebec Canada
CastelCastelsarrasin75mm from 1897-1907France
CCSCanadian Cartridge Co., Hamilton, Ontario Canada
C&SChadwick & Shapcott, Londonmarking on transit plugEngland
C.H./B.T.Charles Hurst Ltd., Montgomery Street Garage, Belfastmarking on primerEngland
CFCharge loaded with corditefull chargeEngland
CF & MCanadian Fairbanks-Morse Co., Toronto Canada
CMMCurran Metal & Munitions Co., Cardiff4.5-inch howitzerEngland
CPRCanadian Pacific Railway Canada
CRCharge loaded with corditereduced chargeEngland
CSCast steel England
CSB CoCollingwood Ship Building Co. Canada
DBÉtablissement Delaunney-Belleville à Paris France
DCP CoDominion Copper Products Company Canada
DCPCDominion Copper Products Company Canada
DE CCanon 75 de Campagne France
Dr1Inspection mark for Patronenfabrik Karlsruhe1898 to 1902Germany
DWMDeutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabrik Germany
E & GEhrich & Graetz Germany
ECPEcole centrale de Pyrotechnic à Bourges France
EDBEtablissement Delaunay-Belleville France
EOCElswick Ordnance Company England
EPEcole de Pyrotechnie, Antwerp Belgium
E.V. & M.CoEdward Valve and Manufacturing Co. USA
E.W.B.C.E. W. Bliss and Co., New York USA
F1National Filling Factory No. 1, Leeds - Barnbowfilling 18-pdr. to 6-inch shell and QF, BL type cartridgesEngland
F2National Filling Factory No. 2, Liverpool - Bland Park Farm - Sefton6-inch HE howitzer, 18-pdr. incendiary and 60-pdr. HE shell.England
F3National Filling Factory No. 3, Perivale, London (Willesden Lane)detonators, gaines and primersEngland
F4National Filling Factory No. 4, Georgetown - Erskine (Paisley)filling 4.5-inch and 18-pdr HE, 12-inch HE and trench mortar bombsEngland
F5National Filling Factory No. 5, Gloucester - Quedgeleyfilling 18-pdr. cartridge, 4.5-inch and 60-pdr. shell, cartridges and primersEngland
F6National Filling Factory No. 6, Chilwell - Long EatonTNT and ammonium nitrate filling 4.5-inch to 15-inch shell.England
F7National Filling Factory No. 7, Hayes, Middlesexdetonators, gaines, 18-pdr., 4.5-inch, 6-inch howitzer HE and smokeEngland
F8National Filling Factory No. 8, Southwark, London (Sumner Street)filling gaines, No. 100 - 103 type fuzes,England
F9National Filling Factory No. 9, Banburylyditte filling factory - H2 mines, 18-pdr., 6-pdr. and 60-pdr. HEEngland
F10National Filling Factory No. 10, Coventry - Whitmore Park / Foleshillfilling detonators, fuzes and gainesEngland
F11National Filling Factory No. 11, Abbey Woodassembling and filling shell, fuzes, detonators and gainesEngland
F12National Filling Factory No. 12, Cardonald, Renfrewshiredetonators, gaines and primersEngland
F13National Filling Factory No. 13, White Lund[filling 6-inch howitzer, 8-inch HE and 60-pdr. HE.England
F14National Filling Factory No. 14, Hereford18-pdr., chemical, 60-pdr. HE and 6-inch howitzer HEEngland
F18National Filling Factory No. 18, Burry Portfilling 4.5-inch, 6-inch, 8-inch shell and breaking down of defective shell England
F22National Filling Factory No. 22, Gainsboroughfilling sinkers with TNT, and naval work including H2 minesEngland
F23National Filling Factory No. 23, Chittening6-inch shells filled with mustard gasEngland
FNFriedrich Niemeyer Germany
FPSFederal Press Steel Company, Milwaukee3-inch, 6-inch and 7-inchUSA
FREFonderie de Ruelle à Angoulème France
FSForced steel England
G217Geschossfabrik nr.217?Germany
GF SbGeschossfabrik Siegburg Germany
GF SgGeschossfabrik Strasbourg Germany
GF SpGeschossfabrik Spandau Germany
GG (W)Gelsenkirchner Gusstahl Werke Germany
GMCGorham Metal Cartridges USA
G.M.C.O.Garland Manufacturing Company Ltd., Hamilton, Ontario Canada
Hcase head formed by a hammer England
Hb27Inspection mark of Patronenfabrik Friedrich Neumeyer Germany
H.G. & MHamilton Gear & Machine Co. Canada
HLHaniel Luege Düsseldorfbrass factoryGermany
HL21Inspection mark for Patronenfabrik Karlsruhe1915Germany
HLWHarrisburg Pipe Company USA
JM CoJenckes Machine Co. Canada
KHA?? Canada ?
KNKing's Norton Metal Co. Birmingham England
KPKrupp Essen Germany
LPyrotechnic Maritime de Lourient France
LNParc d'Artillerie de Place de Lyon France
LTParc d'Artillerie de Place de Lorient France
MACMontreal Ammunitions Corporation Canada
MAIManufacture d'Armes Issy-les-Moulineaux France
MAMManufacture d'Armes Marseille France
MDCoMetal Drawing Co. Ontario Canada
MGMManufacture Générale de Munitions France
MLWMontreal Locomotive Works Canada
NHJ?? Canada ?
NYNew York Air Brake Co.NY depicted as logoUSA
PFilled with gunpowdernot for blank cartridgesEngland
P & SPötz & Sand in Monheim20mm BeckerGermany
PCFDParc d'Artillerie de Place de Clermont-Ferrand France
P.B.& Co.Platt Brothers & Co., Oldhammarking on primerEngland
PBSParc d'Artillerie de Place de Bourges France
PDPParc d'Artillerie de Paris France
PDPsPinchart Deny à Paris France
P.E.M. CoPoole Engineering and Machine Co. USA
PVSParc d'Artillerie de Versailles France
PVISParc d'Artillerie de Vincennes France
PolteMagdeburg Germany
PxParc d'Artillerie de Puteaux France
RALRA Lister & Co, Cardiff England
RhMFRheinische Munitionsfabrik Düsseldorf Germany
RLRoyal Laboratories, Woolwich Arsenal England
S •Case tested with scleroscope (for hardness)on 13-pdr., 18-pdr. and 4.5-inch howitzer only(?)England
SCBxSchneider Bordeaux France
SDCompagnie Française des Métaux à St Denis France
SFMSociéte Française des Munitions France
SGS.G Sconosciuto Pirotecnico di Capua Italy
SHSiemens-Halske Germany
SMCSinger Manufacturing Co. England
SMISocietà Metallurgica Italiana Italy
Sp252Inspection mark for Patronenfabrik Polte Magdeburg Germany
Sp255Inspection mark for Patronenfabrik Karlsruhe1916 to 1918Germany
Sp289Inspection mark for Patronenfabrik Polte Magdeburg Germany
Sp406Inspection mark for Patronenfabrik Polte Magdeburg Germany
St46inspection markSt = strengthened case (Stark)Germany
Ste Fse MonsSociéte Française des Munitions France
TPyrotechnic Maritime de Toulon France
TEPoudrerie de Toulouse France
TLParc d'Artillerie de Place de Toul France
TLHTréfileries et Laminoirs du Hâvre France
TNParc d'Artillerie de Place de Toulon France
TRTir Rapide (= Rapid firing) France
USNGFU.S. Naval Gun Factory, Washington DC USA
VNParc d'Artillerie de Place de Verdun France
VSMVickers, Sons and Maxim England
WMFG Co.Winchester Manufacturing Co. USA
WPSWorchester Pressed Steel USA
WNYWashington Navy Yard USA


Reference list

  • Armi ed Equipaggiamenti Dell'Esercito Italiano Nella Grande Guerra 1915-1918, by Nevio Mantoan (Gino Rossato,Novale 1996)
  • l'Artiglieria Austro-Ungarica nella Grande Guerra, by Filippo Cappellano (Gino Rossato, Novale 2001).
  • l'Artiglieria Italiana nella Grande Guerra, by Andrea Curami & Allessandro Masignami (Gino Rossato, Novale 1998).
  • British Artillery Weapons & Ammunition 1914-1918, by Ian V. Hogg and L.F. Thurston (Ian Allan, London 1972).
  • Deutsche Artillerie- und Minenwerfer Munition 1914-1918, by Karl-Heinz Dissberger (Dissberger, Düsseldorf 1984).
  • German Artillery of World War One, by Herbert Jäger (The Crowood Press Ltd, Marlborough 2001).
  • Handbook of Ordnance, Washington 1919.
  • La Flak de 1914-1918 (Part 1 and 2), by B. Delsert, J.J. Dubois and Chr. Kowal (La PLume du Temps, 2000).
  • Notes on Austro-Hungarian Fuzes. London 1917.
  • Notes on German Fuzes, and typical French and Belgian Fuzes, London 1918.
  • United States Artillery Ammuntion, London 1917.

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